The Japanese are located in the southeast of Obihang County, in the great sea. Huddled together on an island in the mountains, they have established a settlement that functions as a state. In the past, there were more than a hundred countries, and during the Han Dynasty, there were those who had an imperial visit. Now, the number of countries that can be exchanged is 30.
（To get to Yamato from (Obihang) County, follow the coast and go on the water. Passing through Korea, they go south and east, and arrive at Gudeokorea on its (=Wa's) northern shore. It is more than 7,000 ri.
His place of residence is an inaccessible island, about 400-odd li square. The land (Tsushima Province and Tsushima Sea Province) is steep and deeply wooded, and the roads are like the paths of birds and deer. There are more than 1,000 houses. There are no good rice paddies, and people subsist on marine products. They go to Kyushu and Korea by ship to trade and buy grain.
（The size of this land is about 300 li square. There are many bamboos, trees, grass, and forests. There are about 3,000 houses. There are some rice fields, but not enough to feed the people, so they go to Kyushu and Korea to buy grain through trade, just as Tsushima does.
(From Ichi Daigoku), they crossed the sea for more than 1,000 ri to reach the Land of Baturo. There are more than 4,000 houses, and they live along the mountains and the sea. The vegetation is so thick that they cannot see the people in front of them when they go. They like to catch fish and abalone, and dive for them regardless of the depth of the water.
If you go 500 ri southeast on land, you will arrive at Ito-gu. The officials are called Jishi, and the deputies are called Eiboko and Heikyoko. There are more than 1,000 houses. There have been kings from generation to generation, all of whom are subordinate to the queen state. （It is a place where the envoys of the county come and go, and always stay.
（It leads south to Yabawi Province. This is where the queen has her capital. The journey by water is ten days and by land one month. The next is called Bibasho, and the next is called Bibasho. The next is called Bibasho, the next Bibakwashi, and the next Dokatei. There are about 70,000 households.
The number of households and distances north of the Queen Country can be approximated, but the rest of the country is too far away for us to know much about it. Next is the country of Sheba. Next comes Shihakshi Province. Then there is Iya. Next, there is Toshi. Next, there is the country of Midu. Then there is Kaukoto Country Then there is Fuco Then there is Shadu Country. Then there is Taiso Country Then there is Sodu Then there is Koihu Country. Then there is Kadu Sodu Then there is Ki Then there is Igo Then there is Kidu Country Then there is Yaba Country Then there is Kyushin Country Then there is Hari Then there is Shiyui Country Then there is Wodu Country Then comes the Land of Doo. This is the enくまもと the boundary of the Queen Country.
To the south of this (queen country) is the country of Koudu, where a man is king. To the south of it (the queen's kingdom) there is the kingdom of Koukouchihikou, where a male is king, and its governor is Koukouchihikou. It does not belong to the Queen. It is more than 10,お200 ri from Obihang-gun to the queen's kingdom.
When the son of Shaokang, the Empress of Xia, was given land in Huaihe, he cut his hair and had tattoos on his body to avoid the harm of the dragon. The Japanese watermen now like to sink and catch fish and clams, and their tattoos were also used to hold back large fish and waterfowl, but later they gradually became decorative. Tattoos in different countries are different from each other, some are on the left, some on the right, some are large, some are small, and some are different depending on the status of the person.
The custom was not slutty. All the boys have their hair tied back (without any covering) and their heads tied up with cotton. Their kimonos are wide and are merely tied together, with little or no stitching. The woman's hair hangs down over her forehead and is tied back in a fold. They make a one-layered quilt-like garment, cut a hole in the center of it, and put their heads in it.
They use a spear, a shield, and a wooden bow as their weapons. Wooden bows are short at the bottom and long at the top. Bamboo arrows are attached with iron or bone arrowheads. The objects they have or do not have are the same as those of the people of Hwangji and Chu Cliff.
The climate in Japan is warm, and they eat fresh vegetables in both winter and summer. Everyone is barefoot. They have roofs and rooms. Parents and siblings sleep in separate rooms. Red pigment is applied to their bodies, similar to the use of powdered face powder in China.
For eating and drinking, they use a woven bamboo bowl or a hollowed wooden bowl, and eat with their hands.
When a person dies, he or she is placed in a coffin, but without burial chamber (the outer container). A burial chamber is made of earth. In the beginning, the period of mourning was ten days or more after death. At that time, no meat was eaten, the mourners wept and cried, and others sang, danced, and drank alcohol. After the burial, the whole family would go into the water together to wash and bathe, similar to the Chinese practice of "neribu" (bathing in white silk mourning clothes on the first anniversary of the death of a loved one).
Whenever one travels across the sea to visit China, one should always let one person comb his head, not remove lice, leave his clothes stained with red, not eat meat, and not go near women, as if he were a person in mourning. This is called jisai. If the jisai is able to go safely, everyone gives it fresh food and goods as compensation, but if it falls ill or is in danger, they try to kill it. The reason is that the jisai had a faulty character.
It produces pearls and jade. On that mountain there is tan. Its trees include the tabunoki (camphor tree), konara (shuttlecock), kuromoji (gum tree), camphor tree, sawtooth oak (Quercus acuta), oak (Quercus serrata), yamaguwa (oak), and hu (Chinese fennel). The bamboos are the sasa (shino), yadake (cornetfish), and ? (桃支). There is ginger, tangerine, sansho (山椒), and myoga (ミョウガ), but they do not know how to use them to produce umami. There are rhesus monkeys and black pheasants.
In their custom, when they are about to do something or go somewhere, or when they have a concern, they immediately burn the bones and make a divination of good or bad luck. The purpose of the divination is announced first, and the words used are similar to those of the Chinese divination method called "Reigui Hou" (the method of the tortoise). The omens are divined by looking at the cracks created by the fire.
According to the custom, every adult in the country has four or five wives, and even a humble man may have two or three wives. The women are chaste and not jealous. They do not steal, and there are few lawsuits. If they violate the law, the lighter ones forfeit their wives and children (and become slaves), and the heavier ones forfeit their gate or clan. There is a difference and a hierarchy between the nobility and the nobility, and they are maintained by being subject to their superiors.
Taxes are collected and there are large warehouses on stilts. There are fairs in each country to trade in goods and services, and they are supervised by the Yamato.
North of the Queen Country, there is a great leader who is in charge of the prosecution. The nations are afraid of this. He is always in charge of government affairs in Itsukoku. （He is like a prick in the land of Wei.
（Whenever the king dispatches an envoy to the capital of Wei, Obihang-gun, or Korea, or whenever an envoy from Obihang-gun comes to Japan, he (this great leader) goes to the port (from Itsu-koku) to investigate and confirm. Documents and gifts given are to be transmitted and delivered to the queen, but no error or difference in number is allowed.
When a person of the lower ranks encounters a nobleman on the road, he must back away and enter the grass (i.e., give way) (on the side of the road). When they are speaking or explaining something, they should stoop or kneel down, and put their hands on the ground to express their gratitude. The nobleman's voice in reply is "ai. （The voice of the nobleman's reply is called "ai," which is the same as "nen nokou" (Chinese for "I understand").
The country originally had a male king, but after 70 or 80 years of residence, the Japanese were in disorder, and years passed in which they attacked each other. So, a girl was appointed king with him. Her name was Himiko. She performed the worship of Onimichi and misled the people. She was very old and had no husband, but she had a younger brother who helped her rule the land.
Since he became king, only a few people have been able to visit him. There are a thousand maids of honor, who serve autonomously (without instructions), and only one man, who goes in and out of the queen's residence to bring food and drink and to deliver words. The palaces and high buildings are heavily fortified with fences and are guarded by armed men at all times.
A thousand miles to the east of the queen's kingdom, across the sea, there is another country, all of which are Japanese.
Also, to the south of the Queen Country is the country of Confucius. The height of a man is three or four feet (72cm~96cm), and he is 4,000-odd ri away from the land of the queen. There is also the Land of Nakedness and the Land of Black Teeth, also to the southeast of the (Queen Country). It can be reached after about a year's travel by ship.
In June of the 2nd year of the King's reign (238), the Queen of Japan dispatched her husband, Nansung Rice, and other officials to Obihang County, and asked to meet the Prince of Heaven to offer him a gift. The governor Liu Xia dispatched an official to escort Nansungmei and others to Kyoto (Luoyang). In the twelfth month of the same year, an imperial decree was issued to the Japanese queen, saying
This is an imperial rescript, pro-Wei King Himiko of Japan. Liu Xia, the governor of Obifang, dispatched an envoy, and your husband, Nansho Yomei, and your second envoy, Toshi Uri, arrived with four men and six women, and two lengths of cloth for the two men and two lengths of cloth for the two women. Thy place of residence is beyond the expression "far away. It is an expression of thy loyalty and filial piety that thou send thy messengers and offer thy tribute. I love thee very much. I now proclaim thee King of O-Wei, and grant thee a gold seal and purple ribbon, and temporarily bestow it upon thee by attaching, attaching, and sealing the seal to the Daimusho of Obiho. Thou shalt work for filial piety (to me) by calming the tribesmen.
Your messengers, Nansungmai and Nyuri, have come a long way and are having a hard time on the road. Now, Nansungmai shall be appointed as Jwasengchujo, and Uwuri shall be appointed as Jwasengchujo. I will give him a silver seal and a blue ribbon, and I will see him and thank him for his kindness, and give him a gift to return home. Now, I will give you five pieces of koryu brocade, ten pieces of millet, fifty pieces of qianqiu, and fifty pieces of azure blue, in return for the tribute you have offered. In particular, I give you three brocades of dark blue cloth, five fine huamao, 50 pieces of white silk, 8 ryo of gold, two 5-foot swords, 100 bronze mirrors, and 50 pounds each of pearls and leaded tan. Upon your return, record and receive them, and show them to all the people of your country, so that they may know that our country is fond of you. For this purpose, I will give you the things that you like.
In the first year of the reign of King Jeongjo (240), Yumi-jun, the governor of Obiho County, dispatched Jian-chung School Lieutenant, Hyeon-hyeon, and others, who took the imperial rescript and the seal and ribbon (= the certificate of the status of the King of Wei, the parent of Japan, and the seal and ribbon) to Japan and gave them to the King of Japan. They also brought an imperial decree (制詔) and gave him gold, woven cloth, brocade, swords, mirrors, and ornaments. The king of Yamato made a public appeal by messenger, expressing his gratitude for the imperial decree.
In the fourth year of the reign (243), the king also dispatched eight messengers, including Dae-huang-gi and Yi-jo-gu, to present them with raw silk, Japanese brocade, red and blue fine silk, cotton clothing, white cloth, tan, and short bows and arrows with wooden handles. The two men were equally awarded the official rank and seal ribbon of Sokuseonchulojo.
In the 8th year (247), Wang Jun (after Yumi-zun's death in battle) assumed the position of governor of Obiho County. The Japanese queen Himiko did not make peace with the male king of the Guunu Kingdom, Himiyakoso, and sent the Japanese Daseokuro and others to Obikata County, explaining that they were attacking each other. （Wang Kun dispatched Jangjeong of Ejusaoksa and others. He brought an imperial edict and a yellow banner and gave them to Nansungmai, and made a proclamation and announced it to him.
Himiko died, and a large temple was built. The diameter was more than 100 paces. The burial was to be by servants, a hundred and more.
A new male king was appointed, but the whole nation was displeased and killed each other. At that time, more than 1,000 people were killed. Iyo, the daughter of Himiko, aged thirteen, was appointed king, and the nation was finally restored to order. Jangseong and his men taught Iyo with a proclamation.
Iyo dispatched twenty men, including the Japanese general and chief of the army, Suseon Chung-jo, to send Jang-myeong and others on their way home. He then went to the central government office and presented 30 men and women with 30 live mouths, 5,000 white beads, two blue beads, and 20 pieces of brocade with different patterns.
Yi lived on a mountain island in the sea, 3,000 miles away by land and water, southeast of Baekje and Silla.
In the Wei Dynasty, he translated and understood more than 30 countries of China, all of them called Zi, and the Yi people did not know the number of miles, but counted them in days.
Its borders extend from east to west in five months and from north to south in three months, each reaching the sea. The terrain is high in the east and low in the west. Those living in Xie Modui are also referred to as "Evil Horsemen" in the "Wei Zhi".
It is also 12,000 miles away from Lelang and Daifang counties, east of Kuaiji near Dan'er.
Since Taibo Yun, tattoos are common .
It counts from Daeho to Hwaguk, travels along the sea, passes through the country of Joseon, and crosses the sea from south to east for over 7,000 ri.
After crossing a sea more than 1,000 miles wide, known as the Great Sea, they are more than 1,000 miles to the south and reach a country. After crossing the sea for more than 1,000 miles, he is named Moruju. He also goes southeast, five hundred miles away, and lands in the country of Yidu.
Then, a hundred miles to the southeast, he goes to the country of slaves. He also traveled one hundred miles east to the country of Bumi. He traveled south for twenty days and reached the country of Touma. He then traveled south for ten days and landed for one month to reach the country of Jamatai, the capital of the Japanese kings.
During the reign of Han Dynasty Kwangmu, he sent an envoy to the court, claiming to be a physician. During the reign of Emperor An, he sent tribute and called Japan the Land of Slaves.
The Ling Emperor was peaceful, his country was in turmoil, they attacked each other, and for years they had no master. There was a woman named Himiko who could confuse people with ghosts and the people of the country would crown her king . She has no husband. There would be two men who would feed the king and deliver the word. The king has palaces, buildings, and gates, all of which are guarded by soldiers, and the laws are very strict. In the 3rd year of the Wei Jingzhuang,
After Gongsun Wenyi was killed, Himiko sent a messenger to begin paying tribute. The Wei monarch has a fake gold seal and a purple ribbon . Early in the game, Himiko died and a male king was established. Chung-chung rejected it and even killed each other to restore Himiko Zong'an-tai to the throne. He then rebuilt the Man King and took orders from the Chinese nobility. Jiangsaku was continuously employed through Jin, Song, Qi, and Liang.
Then Chen Ping, Japanese king until the 20th year of Emperor Kai, surname Amei, style Doris Bigu, named Adai Jimi, sent an envoy to Ike.
The commander of the Shangling Office visited the customs office, and the envoy, the Japanese king, regarding the heavens as his brother and the sun as his brother, went out at dawn to listen to the government, sat in the lotus seat, went out of business at sunrise, and appointed his brother. Emperor Wen said, "This is utter nonsense," so the order was changed.
The king's wife was named Jimi, there were 600 to 700 women in the harem, and the prince's name was Rigamitvri. There are no walls, and there are 12 levels of officials inside: one is great virtue, two is small virtue, two is great benevolence, two is small benevolence, two is great righteousness, two is small righteousness, two is great courtesy, two is small courtesy, two is great wisdom, two is small wisdom, two is great courtesy, small courtesy, and no capacity.
There are 120 soldiers and nuns in China who are shepherds and shepherdesses. 80 families have established Yi Yi wings and are now village heads. 10 Yini wings belong to one army Ni. Dress is men's clothes, skirts and jackets, with small sleeves and shoes painted in the shape of shoes and tied to the feet.
There are many poor people who are not allowed to use gold or silver as ornaments. In those days, clothes and flags were connected and seamless at the end, there was no crown on the head, and hair hung over the ears . During the Sui Dynasty, kings began to make crowns made of gold brocade decorated with gold and silver carved flowers. Women tied their hair back and wore skirts or skirts, both with skirts.
Daffodils are gathered for carding. Grass weaving is recommended, with miscellaneous skins as the surface and patterned skins as the edges. There are bows, arrows, knives, lances, crossbows, gongs, and axes; armor is of varnish leather and arrows of bone. There are soldiers, but no conquests. At royal gatherings, honor guard must be displayed and the music of the country played. Households may number 100,000. As the saying goes, murderers, robbers, and rapists all die, those who steal are rewarded with stolen goods, and those without wealth are not slaves.
Whenever an unjust prisoner is interrogated, if he does not accept the citation, he presses his knees with a piece of wood. Or put a small stone in boiling soup and ask people competing to explore it, the one who understands the song will die. People are very quiet and there is very little quarreling or thievery. Music includes five strings, a zither, and a flute.
There are arm tattoos, dots, and tattoos on both men and women. There is no water for fishing. There are no words, only knotted ropes carved into the wood.
They respected Buddhism, sought scriptures in Baekje, began to have letters, knew divination, and especially believed in shamans.
Every day on the first day of the lunar calendar there is shooting, opera, and drinking; the rest of the festivities are the same as in Hua. Chess, spears, and scorpions are their specialties. The climate is mild and the vegetation is holly.
The land is fertile, with plenty of water and little land. A small loop is used to hang cormorants around their necks, and when the cormorants enter the water to fight the fish, they can catch more than 100 cormorants in a day.
Vulgar people do not have pans, but eat by hand with oak leaves. Straightforward and elegant.
There are more women than men, and marriages are not same-sex; those who agree with each other marry each other.
When a woman enters her husband's house, she must first cross the fire before meeting him. Women are not jealous. The deceased gathered the coffin, relatives and guests sang and danced over the corpse, and wives and brothers were united in a white cloth.
The nobles have three years of funerals, and the common people are covered with pimples. For burial, the corpse should be placed on a boat, carried overland, or taken by small public transport. There is Mt. Aso where stones burn for no reason, but the common people think it is different because they make sacrifices and pray . Wish-fulfilling gems are blue, the size of a chicken egg, and glow at night like clouds or fish eyes.
Both Silla and Baekje are large countries with many precious things, and the Japanese respect and often interact with both.
In the third year of Daegu, his king Doris Bigu sent tribute. The envoy said: "I am the Bodhisattva of Hai Xi and the Emperor of Japan.
I heard that Bodhisattva Hai Xi and the emperor had revived Buddhism, so I sent dozens of pilgrims and monks to learn Buddhism. And the Tianzhi is safe. Emperor Lan was unhappy and said that Hong Luching had told him that if he had any books that were disrespectful to the barbarians, he should not listen to them again.
Moving on to Zhudao, looking south to the kingdom of Tamra, passing through the country of Dusima and scattered across the sea. Then east to Chiyi Kingdom and then to Zhudao Kingdom. Then east to the Kingdom of Qin, whose people are the same as those of Huaxia, they consider suspiciously indefinite.
After passing through more than ten countries, they reached the coast. They are all from the east of the Kingdom of Zhu Zi, and all of them are vassals of Japan. The Japanese king sent hundreds of people from Xiaode's generation to Taiwan, deploying guards of honor and welcoming them with drums and horns. Over the next ten days, Dali Ge Duopi sent over 200 riders to work in the suburbs. other capitals, even to its king and Shiqing. Come to pay your respects. Since then it will be extinct.
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